In this article you will learn to know the most important components of the Air Conditioning System
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Basically the first thing to know about refrigeration is that all fluid has a thermodynamic behavior and therefore, regulated by enthalpy and entropy processes. It's the most complicated thing I can say. Hahaha.
Well simple, that a fluid changing state absorbs heat energy to make such a change, (nothing in the universe is free) and extracts it from the contact medium. Then what it cools is not the liquid as such, but the evaporation of it. eye! This heat is carried away by the liquid in the form of vapor.
Many people think that the cooling gases are cold by nature and nothing further from reality. Remember that when you buy the cylinder, or the gas container, it is not cold. It is always at the temperature of the environment where it is located.
Now, you will say that Dennis went crazy, of course it is cold. So if you do not believe me, take the next test. Wet a drop with cold water, note that at the moment you feel the cold of the water and then you lose quickly. Notice that although it is still wet, it does not feel cold on the finger. Now blow it. You will see that immediately you notice that the finger begins to cool down; not because the air is cold (you are not cooling it, do you? At best, it comes out at room temperature), but the water, by the current of air begins to evaporate and absorbs the heat of the medium, in this case your finger. When you finish evaporating the water, so continue blowing, you will not notice any cold on your finger.
This system is that it uses our body to cool itself, we sweat so that when evaporating it extracts our heat energy.
Ok, now the opposite is that, when going from vapor to liquid, all the extracted heat energy is returned to the medium in the same amount.
Neglect that this is another rather simple term to understand as well. As we increase the pressure in a fluid we also increase its boiling point, which is why a high-pressure gas tends to condense (it becomes liquid).
We see this process in a pressure cooker. The cooking speed is due to the fact that the water reaches temperatures of up to 200 ºC without evaporating. This is because when evaporating it expands and increases the internal pressure and when it does not go out, it raises its boiling point which makes it keep liquid at more than 100ºC this additional heat makes the food is much faster, without burning because in theory we have liquid, only at high pressure.
The following figure shows the cycle traveled by the refrigerant. The system consists of the pipes, the compressor (2) and an expansion valve (4).
The system is filled with a substance that vaporizes at a suitable temperature (pressure / temperature). The compressor, moved by electricity, maintains a constant pressure difference between the evaporator (top) and the condenser (bottom), extracting steam from the low pressure region and injecting it into the high pressure.
The evaporator is placed inside the place to be cooled (for example, the freezer) and the condenser is located outside. The expansion valve (4) (a small hole or strangulation that limits the passage of the liquid) helps to regulate the pressure difference between both regions.
In the condenser, the increase in pressure causes the forced condensation of the liquid, with the corresponding detachment of the condensation heat, which is sent to the environment by means of an exchange coil.
On the other hand, in the evaporator, the liquid at low pressure is forced to evaporate, absorbing the heat from the surroundings. Precisely, this heat extraction is what causes the desired decrease in temperature and the consequent cooling.
In an air conditioning unit, the condenser is located outside the building and a fan is added to the evaporator to circulate the air, which is placed inside the room.
Of course, the selection of the working substance to achieve that the condensation and the vaporization take place in the appropriate temperature range is essential.
-> Evaporator and condenser blowers.
-> Expansion valve.
Written by Dennis García
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